Date of Submission


Document Type



Doctor of Education




Critical Pedagogy, Formative Assessment, Transformational Leadership, Social Justice, Anti-Oppression


This Organizational Improvement Plan (OIP) supports the use of formative assessment practices within the business department at School X. This organization is a public high school situated in an urban school board in Ontario. Bayside School Board mandates that teachers provide all students with equitable assessment practices and student-centred learning opportunities. Transformational leadership, through a critical lens, will propel a change plan to inform teachers about the oppressive nature of using summative assessments. Through Freire’s (2002) concept of critical pedagogy, a case is made to implement more opportunities for using formative assessments, which allow students to feel empowered. Formative assessments can allow students to become critical thinkers and become inspired to change their community. To help diagnose the organization’s willingness to change, I use Cawsey et al.’s (2016) change readiness questionnaire in conjunction with a force field analysis. Once a critical organizational analysis is conducted, Duck’s (2001) five-stage Change Curve will be used to provide a framework for implementing change. Gentile’s (2010) Giving Voice to Values (GVV) leadership approach is used to propel change by empowering teachers and encouraging them to use formative assessment to help empower students. In addition, a campaign to inform the school about critical pedagogy will be the starting step to ignite change in teachers’ assessment practices. Teacher collaboration, empowerment, and resource sharing will enable the creation of an educational community that views formative assessments as an optional approach to promote social justice within School X.