Physical Therapy Publications

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Research in Developmental Disabilities



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AIMS: The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of age, sex, gross motor, manual ability, and communication functions on the frequency and enjoyment of children's participation in family and recreational activities. The secondary aim was to determine the relationships between motor and communication functions and participation.

METHODS: Participants were 694 children, 1.5-12 years old, with cerebral palsy (CP) and their parents across the US and Canada. Parents rated children's frequency and enjoyment of participation using the Child Engagement in Daily Life measure. Parents and therapists identified children's level of function using Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS).

RESULTS: Differences in frequency and enjoyment of participation were found based on children's GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS levels but not age or sex. Children with higher gross motor, manual, and communication functions had higher frequency and enjoyment of participation, compared to children with lower functions. Frequency of participation was associated with GMFCS and CFCS levels whereas enjoyment of participation was only associated with CFCS level.

IMPLICATIONS: Knowledge of child's gross motor, manual ability, and communication functions of children with CP is important when setting goals and planning interventions for participation.


This is an author-accepted manuscript. The final version published by Elsevier can be found at:

The On Track Study was funded by: The Canadian Institutes of Health Research, MOP-119276 and The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, CE-12-11-5321.

This article is emerged from research conducted by the On Track Study Team, which includes Dr. Doreen Bartlett, Faculty of Health Sciences, Western University.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.