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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


With increasing acceptance of performance-based design principles in the field of fire safety, it is imperative to accurately define the behaviour of materials during fire exposure. Real-world fire events, otherwise referred to as natural fires, are defined by four characteristics: heating rate, maximum temperature, exposure duration, and cooling rate. Each of these four characteristics influences concrete’s behaviour in a different manner. In this paper, the available experimental work for concrete, tested at elevated temperatures, is examined to identify the influence of the four natural fire characteristics on concrete compressive strength. This review focuses on normal strength concrete tests only, omitting parameters such as unique additives and confinement. The intent is to provide a fundamental understanding of normal strength concrete. The findings show that maximum temperature and cooling rates have a significant influence on concrete strength. Exposure duration has a moderate impact, particularly at shorter durations. Variable rates of heating have minimal influence on strength. Detailed conclusions are provided along with review limitations, practical considerations for designers, and future research needs.

Citation of this paper:

Kuehnen R, Youssef MA, El-Fitiany SF. Influence of Natural Fire Development on Concrete Compressive Strength. Fire. 2022; 5(2):34.

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