Cognitive changes following multiple-modality exercise and mind-motor training in older adults with subjective cognitive complaints: The M4 study
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© 2018 Boa Sorte Silva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Background We investigated the effects of multiple-modality exercise with additional mind-motor training on cognition in community-dwelling older adults with subjective cognitive complaints. Methods Participants (n = 127, mean age 67.5 [7.3] years, 71% women) were randomized to receive 45 minutes of multiple-modality exercise with additional 15 minutes of either mind-motor training (M4, n = 63) or control (balance, range of motion and breathing exercises [M2, n = 64]). In total, both groups exercised 60 minutes/day, 3 days/week, for 24 weeks. Standardized global cognitive functioning (GCF), concentration, reasoning, planning, and memory were assessed at 24 weeks and after a 28-week no-contact follow-up. Results There were no significant differences in the study primary outcomes. The M4 group, however, showed trends for greater improvements in GCF and memory (both, P = .07) compared to the M2 group at 24 weeks. Significant differences between group in GCF (P = .03) and memory (P = .02) were observed after the 28-week no-contact follow-up favouring the M4 group. Discussion Additional mind-motor training did not impart immediate greater benefits to cognition among the study participants.