Title of Research Output

Open-Source and 3-D Printed Autoinjector

Faculty

Engineering

Supervisor Name

Joshua Pearce

Keywords

Autoinjector, injectable medical device, 3-D printing, open hardware, accessible healthcare

Description

Autoinjectors have become popular modern injectable medical devices used as drug delivery systems. Due to its ease, capability and reliability compared to other conventional injectable medical devices, the market and manufacturing demand for autoinjector devices are increasing at a staggering rate. Although autoinjectors can offset healthcare treatment costs through self-administered medication, they are expensive for consumers. This paper describes the design and manufacture of a spring-driven and 3-D printed autoinjector using open-source hardware. By making it an open-source resource for everyone, the barrier of advanced research in design and production can be lifted, thus making it easily manufacturable and cost-effective. The bill of materials and assembly instructions are detailed, and the effectiveness of the autoinjector is tested against current ISO standards for syringes. All components can be printed in under 12 hours using an open source desktop RepRap-class 3D printer for $1.60. The construction requires one compression spring, and the total cost of the device is $5.07. The safety and dosing accuracy was tested by measuring the weight of water expelled from each insulin syringe. One-way ANOVA assessed variability between syringes, and significant differences (P < 0.05) rejected the null hypothesis because the means of drug administered were not equal. Testing indicated that the entire dose was not administered in three trials for any syringes. Injections were variable between syringes, but the device delivered about 80% - 90% of the volume consistently. The current open source and 3-D printed designs are more cost-effective and accessible. Future designs should attempt to maintain this consistency while optimizing performance. Appropriate modifications will allow future autoinjectors to be feasible and reliable medical devices to support individuals burdened by healthcare costs.

Acknowledgements

Thank you to Dr. Pearce, the USRI program, and the Faculty of Engineering for their support.

Comments

All relevant data are within the manuscript, and all designs are available in the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/b4cfw/) under a GPL v3 open source license. The compression spring used can be purchased at McMaster-Carr (https://www.mcmaster.com/94125K22/).

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License

Document Type

Poster

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Open-Source and 3-D Printed Autoinjector

Autoinjectors have become popular modern injectable medical devices used as drug delivery systems. Due to its ease, capability and reliability compared to other conventional injectable medical devices, the market and manufacturing demand for autoinjector devices are increasing at a staggering rate. Although autoinjectors can offset healthcare treatment costs through self-administered medication, they are expensive for consumers. This paper describes the design and manufacture of a spring-driven and 3-D printed autoinjector using open-source hardware. By making it an open-source resource for everyone, the barrier of advanced research in design and production can be lifted, thus making it easily manufacturable and cost-effective. The bill of materials and assembly instructions are detailed, and the effectiveness of the autoinjector is tested against current ISO standards for syringes. All components can be printed in under 12 hours using an open source desktop RepRap-class 3D printer for $1.60. The construction requires one compression spring, and the total cost of the device is $5.07. The safety and dosing accuracy was tested by measuring the weight of water expelled from each insulin syringe. One-way ANOVA assessed variability between syringes, and significant differences (P < 0.05) rejected the null hypothesis because the means of drug administered were not equal. Testing indicated that the entire dose was not administered in three trials for any syringes. Injections were variable between syringes, but the device delivered about 80% - 90% of the volume consistently. The current open source and 3-D printed designs are more cost-effective and accessible. Future designs should attempt to maintain this consistency while optimizing performance. Appropriate modifications will allow future autoinjectors to be feasible and reliable medical devices to support individuals burdened by healthcare costs.

 

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