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The use of neuroimaging has enhanced our understanding of the human brain and its associated functions. Research and development of these neuroimaging techniques have made it possible to study the brain in both healthy and patient populations, including neurological and psychiatric conditions (Pinti et al., 2020). The present thesis aims to contribute to the research and development of neuroimaging techniques by improving the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) technology. The objective of this thesis is to improve the research application of fNIRS-based resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) studies and enhance the clinical relevance of fNIRS.