MA Research Paper


Master of Arts




Dr. Sean Waite

Delay of Publication



A growing body of literature has found that sexual orientation and gender impact labour market outcomes, including wages. This literature generally finds that gay and bisexual men earn less than heterosexual men. Lesbian women earn more than heterosexual and bisexual women, but still earn less than heterosexual men. Far less research has explored intersectional disadvantages of being lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) and belonging to other minority groups. This paper uses the United States National Health Interview Survey data from 2013 to 2018, to explore sexual minority wage gaps using an intersectional perspective. Specifically, this paper explores whether being an LGB racialized minority or LGB immigrant results in additive disadvantages to one’s earnings. This study finds that bisexual men earn less than heterosexual men, while heterosexual women earn more than bisexual women, but less than lesbian women. All racialized sexual minorities and immigrant sexual minorities earn less than either white or U.S. born, heterosexual men. This suggests that disadvantage is multilayered – sexual minorities who occupy multiple minority positions face greater disadvantages than those who do not.

Available for download on Saturday, September 10, 2022

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