The Discussion Papers Series publishes research papers written by the members associated with the Population Change and Lifecourse Strategic Knowledge Cluster. The aim is to disseminate research and to stimulate discussion on the substantive content, methodological approaches, and implications of the papers. Most papers are documents yet to be published by refereed journals. Comments from readers are welcome by the author(s). The content and views expressed in the Discussion Papers Series belong solely to the author(s) and do not represent the views of The University of Western Ontario or of the Population Change and Lifecourse Strategic Knowledge Cluster.