Association between HIV infection and mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood: A population-based, prospective cohort study
Journal of Infectious Diseases
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Background. Low mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number (CN) is a predictor of adverse aging outcomes, and its status may be altered in human immunodefciency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Tis study evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal change of mtDNA CN by HIV markers. Methods. mtDNA CN was measured in the ALIVE (AIDS Linked to the Intravenous Experience) cohort of persons with a history of injecting drugs. Multivariable linear regression models controlling for demographic characteristics, behavior, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) seropositivity assessed the relationship of mtDNA CN to HIV markers (CD4+ T-cell counts, viral load, antiretroviral therapy [ART] use). Linear mixed models tested the association between HIV markers and age-related mtDNA CN trajectories. Results. Among 741 individuals at baseline, 436 (59%) were infected with HIV. HIV-infected individuals who had lower CD4+ T-cell counts (P =.01), had higher viral loads (P <.01), and were not receiving ART (P <.01) had signifcantly lower mtDNA CNs than uninfected persons; there was no difference between participants who were uninfected and HIV-infected individuals who had well-controlled HIV levels. In longitudinal follow-up of 507 participants, from age 50 years onward, mtDNA CN declined signifcantly faster among HIV-infected individuals than among HIV-uninfected persons (-0.03 units of change/year vs 0.006 units of change/year; P =.04), even among infected individuals with well-controlled HIV. Conclusion. Before 50 years of age, mtDNA CN is similar between HIV-infected individuals with well-controlled HIV and uninfected persons, but from age 50 onward, mtDNA CN declines signifcantly faster among all infected individuals than among HIV-uninfected persons.