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Childbirth can trigger or exacerbate a variety of psychiatric disorders but the extant literature has focused primarily on mood disorders. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) after childbirth can occur alone or in combination with other psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder. Due to the general lack of awareness of the relationship between childbirth and OCD among clinicians as well as patients, the disorder may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder. This article describes the prevalence, clinical features, common psychiatric comorbidities, differential diagnosis and potential consequences of underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis. Using case vignettes strategies for its detection and clinical management are suggested. Finally, areas in need of further research are proposed.