Translational Cancer Research
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Over the last twenty years, the incidence of early endometrial cancer (EC) and atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) among women of reproductive age is increasing rapidly, likely due to a combination of factors including increased prevalence of obesity and delayed of childbirths. Regarding preoperative diagnosis of endometrial neoplasia, it is still debated which is the most accurate and reliable method to obtain endometrial histopathological samples with fractional dilatation and curettage (D&C) having been considered, for a long time, as the method of choice. Nowadays, the advent of in-office endometrial biopsy with or without hysteroscopy has radically changed the approach, giving the opportunity to perform the endometrial biopsy under direct visualization. However, the lack of agreement about its diagnostic accuracy is still relevant. Since a significant number of women with AEH and/or EC are of childbearing age, a fertility-sparing diagnostic and therapeutic approach should be considered in all cases. The feasibility, safety and efficacy of fertility-sparing strategies involving hysteroscopic focal resections in conjunction with hormonal therapies have been evaluated and beneficial effects have been confirmed in several studies and one meta-analysis. Both local and systemic administration of hormonal therapies are currently used. Oral progestin, including medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and megestrol acetate, are the most commonly used therapies. Nowadays, new therapeutic approaches, such as levonorgestrel intrauterine systems (LNG-IUS), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, combined megestrol acetate and metformin, and other combinations of therapies are also used as first line therapies or after the hysteroscopic resection of the lesion. However, it is still unclear which approach provides higher clinical response with lower relapse rate, in addition to preserving fertility in women desiring to conceive. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the evaluation and management with fertility-sparing treatments options of women with AEC and EC.