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Many uncontrolled studies and a subsequent meta-analysis suggest that hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with a positive history for diarrhea is associated with a significant increase in chronic renal disease. Two recent controlled studies that followed children with this type of HUS after Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, and where the controls were selected from a group exposed in the outbreak, gave conflicting results. To clarify this apparent difference, we retrospectively compared a cohort of 30 children with sporadic diarrhea-positive HUS with 30 healthy controls who had no history of bloody diarrhea or HUS and who had similar age and gender. Significantly more children with previous HUS than the controls had albuminuria over a median follow-up of 6.2 years. Of these albuminuric patients, one-third had macroalbuminuria compared with none of the controls. Following HUS, children were three times more prone to hypertension and prehypertension, although the difference was not statistically significant. Glomerular filtration rates, estimated by cystatin C, were significantly lower by 30 ml/min/1.73m 2. Thus, children with sporadic HUS with positive history of diarrhea compared with unexposed controls had a higher prevalence of chronic renal disease; results consistent with the meta-analysis. Prospective studies with appropriate controls are needed to completely resolve this issue. © 2010 International Society of Nephrology.