American Journal of Transplantation
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“Cepacia syndrome”, caused by Burkholderia cepacia complex and often associated with cystic fibrosis, carries a high mortality rate. It is rare for Burkholderia multivorans, a species within the B. cepacia complex, to cause cepacia syndrome even among patients with cystic fibrosis. This is the first reported fatal case of cepacia syndrome caused by B. multivorans occurring in a pediatric liver transplant recipient who does not have cystic fibrosis. We describe the unique characteristics of this pathogen among the non–cystic fibrosis population and the importance of early recognition and treatment.