Arachidonic acid inhibits inflammatory responses by binding to myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD2) and preventing MD2/toll-like receptor 4 signaling activation
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease
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Arachidonic acid (AA) plays a fundamental role in the function of all cells. Metabolites of AA contribute to inflammation as well as for resolving inflammation. Although AA-derived metabolites exhibit well-substantiated bioactivity, it is not known whether AA regulates inflammatory responses independent of its metabolites. With the recent discovery that saturated fatty acids activate toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), we tested the hypothesis that AA directly regulates inflammatory responses through modulating the activity of TLR4. In cultured cardiomyocytes and macrophages, we found that AA prevents saturated fatty acid-induced TLR4 complex formation with accessory proteins and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines. We discovered that AA directly binds to TLR4 co-receptor, myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) and prevents saturated fatty acids from activating TLR4 pro-inflammatory signaling pathway. Similarly, AA reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in macrophages and septic death in mice through binding to MD2. In high-fat diet mouse model of obesity and LPS-induced model of acute lung injury, both mediating inflammatory responses through TLR4, treatment with AA prevented MD2/TLR4 dimerization, induction of inflammatory factors, and tissue injuries. In summary, we have discovered that AA interacts with MD2 and disrupts TLR4 activation by LPS and saturated fatty acids. These findings provide experimental evidence for a direct mechanism of AA-induced regulation of inflammation.