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Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are linked with impaired placental function and early onset of non-communicable cardiometabolic diseases in offspring. Previous studies have highlighted that the dietary non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) palmitate (PA) and oleate (OA), key dietary metabolites associated with maternal obesity and GDM, are potential modulators of placental lipid processing. Using the BeWo cell line model, the current study integrated transcriptomic (mRNA microarray), metabolomic, and lipidomic readouts to characterize the underlying impacts of exogenous PA and OA on placental villous trophoblast cell metabolism. Targeted gas chromatography and thin-layer chromatography highlighted that saturated and monounsaturated NEFAs differentially impact BeWo cell lipid profiles. Furthermore, cellular lipid profiles differed when exposed to single and multiple NEFA species. Additional multi-omic analyses suggested that PA exposure is associated with enrichment in -oxidation pathways, while OA exposure is associated with enrichment in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways. Overall, this study further demonstrated that dietary PA and OA are important regulators of placental lipid metabolism. Encouraging appropriate dietary advice and implementing dietary interventions to maintain appropriate placental function by limiting excessive exposure to saturated NEFAs remain crucial in managing at-risk obese and GDM pregnancies.
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Citation of this paper:
Easton, Zachary J. W., Ousseynou Sarr, Lin Zhao, Adriana Zardini Buzatto, Xian Luo, Shuang Zhao, Liang Li, and Timothy R. H. Regnault. 2023. "An Integrated Multi-OMICS Approach Highlights Elevated Non-Esterified Fatty Acids Impact BeWo Trophoblast Metabolism and Lipid Processing" Metabolites 13, no. 8: 883. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13080883