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Frontiers in Medicine



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Importance: Accurate monitoring of core body temperature is integral to targeted temperature management (TTM) following cardiac arrest. However, there are no reliable non-invasive methods for monitoring temperature during TTM. Objectives: We compared the accuracy and precision of a novel non-invasive Zero-Heat-Flux Thermometer (SpotOn™) to a standard invasive esophageal probe in a cohort of patients undergoing TTM post-cardiac arrest. Design, Setting, and Participants: We prospectively enrolled 20 patients undergoing post-cardiac arrest care in the intensive care units at the London Health Sciences Centre in London, Canada. A SpotOn™ probe was applied on each patient's forehead, while an esophageal temperature probe was inserted, and both temperature readings were recorded at 1-min intervals for the duration of TTM. Main outcomes and Measures: We compared the SpotOn™ and esophageal monitors using the Bland–Altman analysis and the Pearson correlation, with accuracy set as a primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included precision and correlation. Bias exceeding 0.1°C and limits of agreement exceeding 0.5°C were considered clinically important. Results: Sixteen (80%) of patients had complete data used in the final analysis. The median (interquartile range) duration of recording was 38 (12–56) h. Compared to the esophageal probe, SpotOn™ had a bias of 0.06 ± 0.45°C and 95% limits of agreement of −0.83 to 0.95°C. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.9663–0.9678), with a two-tailed p < 0.0001. Conclusion and Relevance: The SpotOn™ is an accurate method that may enable non-invasive monitoring of core body temperature during TTM, although its precision is slightly worse than the predefined 0.5°C when compared to invasive esophageal probe.