Microbiology & Immunology Publications

Sensory properties of probiotic yogurt is comparable to standard yogurt

Document Type


Publication Date



Journal of Urology




5 I

First Page


Last Page


URL with Digital Object Identifier



Thirty ureteral stents, inserted for 5 to 128 days following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, were examined for the presence of bacterial biofilms. Of these, 90% had adherent pathogens (44% mixed organisms) on the stents, 45% of which were present in low numbers (10 -10 per 1 cm section) and 55% were in small and large microcolony biofilms (>2 x 10 -10 ). The organisms were recovered from the stents even though urine culture was only positive in 27% of patients. Of the organisms isolated, 77% were Gram positive cocci, 15% Gram negative rods and 8% Candida. No blockage of the stents occurred. All of the patients had received antimicrobial therapy post-insertion, and in 15 cases biofilms were found while on treatment. None of the patients received therapy for urinary tract infections while the stent remained in place. In vitro experiments demonstrated the ability of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis uropathogens to adhere and form biofilms on ureteral stents within 24 hours. Clearly, bacterial biofilms do occur on ureteral stents and urinary culture may not detect their presence. The high recovery rate of Gram positive organisms may indicate a preferential adhesion to the biomaterial surface. The findings also indicate that unlike biofilm formation on many other prosthetic implants, colonization with Gram positive organisms on ureteral stents does not necessarily coincide with the development symptomatic infection. 1 2 3 2 7

This document is currently not available here.