Persistence of the Oral Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 Is Dose Dependent and Megaplasmid Transfer Can Augment Their Bacteriocin Production and Adhesion Characteristics
Journal of Endourology
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Encrustation and urinary tract infection are problematic complications of ureteral stent usage. The objective of our first study was to use surface science techniques to examine three ureteral stent types for encrustation, biofilm formation, and antibiotic adsorption after use in patients. Black Beauty (N = 16), LSe (N = 16), and SofFlex (N = 32) ureteral stents were recovered from patients who had received trimethoprim or ciprofloxacin while the stent was indwelling. These stents were examined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX) for the presence and composition of encrustation or biofilm. Conditioning films and encrustations were found on all stents. Encrustation elements (Ca, Mg, P) were identified on 11 of 16 Black Beauty (69%), 7 of 16 LSe (44%), and 12 of 32 SofFlex (38%) stents. The stent type, duration of insertion, and age or sex of the patient did not correlate significantly with the amount of encrustation. Bacterial biofilms were found on 1 of 7 Black Beauty stents (14%) and 7 of 32 SofFlex stents (22%). In a second study, an additional 28 patients with SofFlex stents were treated with ciprofloxacin (N = 16) or ofloxacin (N = 12). Their stents were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography to determine if oral antibiotic therapy can lead to drug adsorption to the stent. Analysis showed that both ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin adsorbed to the stent surfaces. The mean concentrations of the two antibiotics within the conditioning film of the stents were 0.99 μg/mL and 0.34 μg/mL, respectively. These surface science techniques provide a comprehensive method of evaluating ureteral stents and other prosthetic devices in vivo.