Micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics and prebiotics, a review of effectiveness in reducing HIV progression
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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Forty two paraplegic and quadriplegic hospitalized spinal cord injured patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) were included in a double blind, randomized treatment study comparing 7 days ofloxacin (300 mg bd) with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMPSMX; 160-800 mg bd) or an alternative, chosen because of resistance to TMPSMX. The 4-day clinical cure rate, defined as an asymptomatic patient with sterile urine, was 90% (19/21) with ofloxacin, significantly greater than 48% (10/21) for the comparison group (P=0.003) and the rate at end of therapy was 90% (19/21) with ofloxacin, against 57% (12/21) (P=0.015). Bacterial biofilms were detected on bladder epithelial cells in 39/41 (95%) patients. The biofilm score fell significantly following ofloxacin therapy (P<0.001) or alternative therapy (P<0.001). Ofloxacin treatment led to significantly more biofilm eradication than the other antibiotic group on day 4 (62 vs. 24%) (P=0.005) and day 7 (67 vs. 35%) (P=0.014). The study showed that ofloxacin was better than TMPSMX and alternatives at relieving clinical infection and eradicating bladder cell biofilms. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.