MPA Major Research Papers

Date of Award


Degree Type

Major Research Paper

Degree Name

Master of Public Administration


Political Science


Sancton, Andrew

Geographical Areas



This paper examines the devolution of ambulance services in Ontario from provincial to municipal control to determine whether it has resulted in a more efficient, accountable, less costly, and simplified process. Data from a sample of municipalities in the province is analyzed in an attempt to determine differences in cost and service levels between municipalities that choose to contract ambulance services and those that decide to deliver ambulance services themselves. The findings reveal that although ambulance services in Ontario have been historically under-resourced and have experienced increased service levels, the cost of providing the service has almost doubled since devolution to municipalities.