Increased Blood Pressure and Hyperdynamic Cardiovascular Responses in Carriers of a Common Hyperfunctional Variant of Adenylyl Cyclase 6
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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Adenylyl cyclase (ADCY) is a critical regulator of metabolic and cardiovascular function. We have identified a genetic variant (A674S) in ADCY isoform 6 (ADCY6). Subsequent studies demonstrated that the expression of this ADCY6 variant paralleled an increase in adenylyl cyclase-mediated functions. However, the impact of this hyperfunctional variant on cardiovascular function is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the hemodynamic profile of carriers of ADCY6 A674S. The association of ADCY6 A674S with anthropometric and hemodynamic parameters was assessed in 364 healthy white subjects. The allele encoding this variant was present in 6.9% of the subjects, and those individuals had increased blood pressure. To determine the hemodynamic basis for increased blood pressure in carriers of ADCY6 A674S, we assessed forearm blood flow (FBF) and cardiac output at rest, during handgrip exercise (to test vasodilator responsiveness), and with lower body negative pressure [to test forearm vasoconstrictor and heart rate (HR) responsiveness] in a subsample of 21 subjects. At rest, cardiac output and blood pressure were higher in carriers of ADCY6 A674S. This was paralleled by an increase in plasma renin activity, but not in plasma norepinephrine. During handgrip exercise, FBF and vasodilator responses were greater in carriers of ADCY6 A674S. Responses to reactive hyperemia were not different between genotypes. With lower body negative pressure, the HR response to this orthostatic stress was markedly higher in carriers of ADCY6 A674S. These data indicate that the relatively common hyperfunctional ADCY6 A674S variant underlies a hyperdynamic cardiovascular response and increased blood pressure.