Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thesis Format

Integrated Article


Doctor of Philosophy




Dr. George Gadanidis


This integrated article thesis provides an analysis of the past, present, and potential future state of Computer Science (CS) in K-12 education. Once implemented in optional courses at the secondary level, CS concepts and skills are now being integrated into other subject areas such as mathematics, science, and technology and other grades including K-8. This new state of K-12 CS education is explored through an analysis of 1) related theory reflected in the literature, 2) historical secondary school CS curriculum, 3) enrolment data and important issues related to equity, diversity, and inclusion, and 4) K-8 CS-related curriculum approaches currently being implemented in educational jurisdictions across Canada. The four articles in this dissertation employ a qualitative approach to research, drawing on a constructivist epistemology. Thematic Analysis is used in the comparative analysis of historical curriculum documents from Ontario and Document Analysis is used in comparing the various K-8 curriculum documents from across Canada. Together, the chapters included in this integrated article thesis provide a comprehensive analysis of K-12 CS education that supports educators, policy makers, and researchers in the field during a transformative time.

Summary for Lay Audience

This integrated article dissertation explores the field of Computer Science (CS) education in kindergarten to grade 12 (K-12), during a transformative time. In the past, CS concepts and skills were introduced to students in optional courses at the high school level, but now these concepts and skills are being introduced into other subject areas, such as mathematics, science, and technology and other grades, such as K-8. This thesis explores this change by analyzing theoretical perspectives from a variety of researchers as well as historical CS-related curricula. Enrolment data in CS courses is also explored, and the important themes of equity, diversity, and inclusivity in CS education are investigated, as well new CS-related curricula in the K-8 grades. The goal of this dissertation is to develop an understanding of the past, present, and future direction of CS in K-12 education.