Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thesis Format



Master of Arts




Timmins, Peter


The Ridge Pine 3 site is about 1.3 km inland from Lake Huron on the eastern edge of the Grand Bend community in the Ausable Valley. The site was originally dated to the Late Archaic Small Point complex (ca. 4100 cal BP [3800 RCYBP] to 3200 cal BP [3000 RCYBP]), but a reassessment of the projectile point typology and radiocarbon dating have led to a different conclusion. The primary occupation of Ridge Pine 3 occurred during the Late Archaic Narrow Point complex (ca. 5000 cal BP [4500 RCYBP] to 4100 cal BP [3800 RCYBP]), but there is evidence of multiple occupations throughout the Archaic. The site provides insight into the poorly understood Late Archaic Narrow Point complex in Ontario. To understand the functions of the site and the seasons of occupation, an in-depth analysis of the assemblage, totalling 19788 artifacts, was conducted. Most of the assemblage contains lithic tools and chipped stone debris (debitage). The debitage makes up 96.16% of the assemblage, most of which is Kettle Point and Onondaga chert. Lithic analysis also focused on understanding flintknapping skill levels and the possibility of craft learning. A reconstruction of the paleoenvironment was completed to understand what resources were available to people at Ridge Pine 3 and what environmental constraints they may have faced in that location.

Summary for Lay Audience

The Ridge Pine 3 site is an archaeological site near the Lake Huron shoreline in Grand Bend that dates to the Late Archaic Narrow Point complex (ca. 5000 cal BP [4500 RCYBP] to 4100 cal BP [3800 RCYBP]). This is a poorly understood time in Ontario’s precontact history, and the site can provide valuable information to add to our current understandings. The purpose of this study was to analyze the artifact collection from the Ridge Pine 3 site which mostly contains lithics or stone tools and debitage, the material removed during the manufacture of stone tools. This analysis shed light on the date of the site, whether occupations outside of the Narrow Point complex occurred, what activities were conducted there, and potential times of the year the site was occupied. As well, lithic analysis focused on trying to understand the skill levels of the flintknappers or people creating the tools at the site and whether that skill was being taught at Ridge Pine 3. A reconstruction of the surrounding environment at the time of occupation was also conducted in order to understand the landscape as it was back then before historical land alterations took place and modern lake levels were reached. This analysis provided insight into what resources were available in the area, what challenges people may have faced, and possibilities for when the site was occupied during the year.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.