Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thesis Format



Master of Engineering Science


Civil and Environmental Engineering


Yanful, Ernest K.

2nd Supervisor

Dagnew, Martha


In many African countries, the shortage of water resources is a common phenomenon. Providing safe and adequate water is an issue that must be considered by community leaders and municipal authorities. The present project investigated the performance of a small drinking water treatment system in a small community at Enyan Abaasa, Central Region, Ghana, through sampling and laboratory testing. The treatment system, which is fed by a deep borehole, consists sequentially of polypropylene (PP) yarn pre-filter, sand filter, layered activated carbon-softener resin filter, PP yarn micron filter, reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, PP yarn final filter and two ultraviolet (UV) disinfection units. The research also explored possible additional water sources for the growing community where the drinking water production plant is located. Monitoring of the water quality showed that the softener resin, micron filter, and UV disinfection units occasionally malfunctioned and resulted in microbial contamination of the water and should be replaced or repaired. In order to meet the Ghana Standards Authority guidelines, the pH also needs to be adjusted by using a neutralization filter. Rainwater and wastewater recycled from the drinking water treatment system could be source water for the treatment plant. The thesis proposes improvements and suggestions for adequate water supply for this particular community and its residents.

Summary for Lay Audience

In Ghana and many other African countries, water shortage is a widespread phenomenon. Moreover, the local water supply system is not planned and managed by the government. This phenomenon can result in situations where the quality of domestic water and drinking water available to residents is not able to meet national standards. Therefore, the commercial production of safe drinking water that can meet the local standards is a worthwhile economic enterprise.

The drinking water treatment system installed in this project is located in a small community at Enyan Abaasa in the Central Region of Ghana. The community includes residential facilities for teachers and students at a nearby Secondary technical School. The water treatment system is designed to improve borehole water quality by analyzing the treatment capacity of each component of the treatment system. At the same time, in order to make full use of the borehole water and reduce water waste, it is necessary to utilize the wastewater produced by the drinking water production system. As the community is still expanding, it is essential to provide more water resources to this community. In general, combining various test results and site conditions provide suggestions for the future development of this small community (including water treatment and supply).