Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thesis Format

Integrated Article


Master of Science


Biomedical Engineering


Jenkyn, Thomas R.


It has been illustrated that measuring inter-segmental joint motions of the foot using a dynamic method is required to evaluate the function and level of impairment of the foot joints. Optical motion tracking using the multi-segment foot model (MSFM) developed by Jenkyn and Nicole (2007), has been demonstrated to be a valid tool for measuring the motion of the joints within the foot. However, in current practice, inter-segmental joint motions of this model are measured using a custom-written software (MATLAB) and it limits the clinical usefulness of this model. Hence, this study implemented the MSFM introduced by Jenkyn and Nicole in a clinical user-friendly software, Vicon ProCalc, to measure the joint motions within the foot. Ankle Joint dorsi/plantarflexion, subtalar joint inversion/eversion, hindfoot supination/pronation and internal/external rotation with respect to the midfoot, forefoot supination/pronation with respect to the midfoot, hallux dorsiflexion, the rise and fall of the medial longitudinal arch, and relative motion of the medial and lateral forefoot segments were measured using Jenkyn and Nicole’s MSFM and the Vicon ProCalc software for eleven participants in this study. The test was repeated using Oxford foot model (OFM) and the joint motions measured using Vicon ProCalc were compared with the results of the Oxford foot model as well as the results of the previous study on the Jenkyn and Nicole model. Compared data were matching and there was not any significant difference between the results (p<0.03) and it demonstrated the validity of using Vicon ProCalc for measuring inter-segmental joint motions of the foot.

Summary for Lay Audience

Human foot contains several segments and they move with respect to each other. Every two segments are attached to each other through a joint. Any dysfunction that occurs in the foot joints can cause pain and affect our daily activities. Thus, measuring the functionality of the foot joints is important to clinicians. Optical motion tracking allows us to track the motion of the joints using reflective markers and cameras. In order to use the optical motion tracking for measuring the motion of the foot joints, we need to use models that divide the foot into several segments. However, measuring joint motions using these models is time taking and requires extensive mathematical calculations which is not clinical user-friendly. This study implemented the multi-segment foot model (MSFM) developed by Jenkyn and Nicole (2007) into a clinical setting in order to provide clinicians with functional information of the patients’ foot joints.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.