Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thesis Format



Master of Arts




Peter Timmins


The Ridge Pine 2 and South Bend sites lie within four kilometres of each other, both date to the late Middle Archaic period (ca. 5500-4500 before present), and both contain significant amounts of nonlocal chert. This exploitation of nonlocal chert occurred despite the close proximity of the Kettle Point chert outcrop to both sites. Notwithstanding their similarities, the two sites differ dramatically. From the raw material breakdown to projectile point types the two assemblages are quite different. These differences raise questions surrounding the chert procurement strategy employed by the groups at Ridge Pine 2 and South Bend. In order to distinguish between strategies a detailed analysis of the projectile points, formal tools, bifaces, and chipping detritus was undertaken. The results indicate that the occupants of Ridge Pine 2 probably acquired nonlocal Onondaga chert through direct procurement, while the South Bend group used more locally available Kettle Point chert and likely acquired nonlocal chert through exchange.

Summary for Lay Audience

The Ridge Pine 2 and South Bend sites are archaeology sites that lie along the shore of Lake Huron in Grand Bend and date to the Middle Archaic (ca. 5500-4500 before present). The purpose of this study was to assess the artifacts found at these two sites were the product of trade with groups that lived along the shore of Lake Erie. This study was done through the thorough examination of the stone tools found on site in order to isolate particular characteristics that may indicate whether trade took place.

Analysis of curated tools.docx (28 kB)
detailed description of tool analysis

Ridge Pine flake catalogue.xlsx (37 kB)
detailed break down of chipping detritus analysis from Ridge Pine 2

South Bend flake catalogue.xlsx (11 kB)
detailed break down of chipping detritus analysis from South Bend