Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository


Master of Engineering Science


Biomedical Engineering


Roy Eagelson

2nd Supervisor

Sandrine de Ribaupierre



Surgical simulators are becoming more important in surgical training. Consumer smartphone technology has improved to allow deployment of VR applications and are now being targeted for medical training simulators. A surgical simulator has been designed using a smartphone, Google cardboard 3D glasses, and the Leap Motion (LM) hand controller. Two expert and 16 novice users were tasked with completing the same pointing tasks using both the LM and the medical simulator NeuroTouch. The novice users had an accuracy of 0.2717 bits (SD 0.3899) and the experts had an accuracy of 0.0925 bits (SD 0.1210) while using the NeuroTouch. Novices and experts improved their accuracy to 0.3585 bits (SD 0.4474) and 0.4581 bits (SD 0.3501) while using the LM. There were some tracking problems with the AR display and LM. Users were intrigued by the AR display and most preferred the LM, as they found it to have better usability.