Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository


Doctor of Philosophy




Dr. Julie Byrd Clark


Research into teacher preparedness within teacher education programs and its relationship to teacher attrition is an increasing area of interest in Canada and around the world. In Canada, on average, the estimated turnover for second language educators is approximately 30% in the first five years and 50% of these are within the first two years (Canadian Teacher’s Federation (CTF), 2004; Karsenti, Collin, Villeneuve, Dumouchel, & Roy, 2008; Siwatu, 2011; Swanson, 2012). The CTF (2004), French and Collins (2014), Karsenti et al. (2008) and Swanson (2012) have reported on several factors that influence language teacher attrition and retention: teacher preparedness, teacher self-efficacy, and teaching for student cultural and linguistic diversity (CALD). Given that language teacher attrition rates remain high and teaching for CALD is a prominent challenge for language educators, there is a high demand to prepare future language teachers to teach multilinguals (Cummins, 2006; Egbo, 2009; Mady, 2007, 2012; Schecter, & Cummins, 2003). Through a mixed methods approach using an online survey and interviews, this study investigated student teachers’ knowledge, attitudes, skills, and self-efficacy to teach with technologies and strategies for teaching CALD students. This research is based upon a multiliteracy theoretical framework combining technologies and critical literacy pedagogies. It reports on technologies and multicultural teaching strategies being used in teacher preparation courses and practicum placements. Finally, it provides ways of how teacher education programs could assist in further supporting student teachers in their transition into professional practice to increase self-efficacy and more effectively support Canada’s diverse multilingual student body.