Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository


Doctor of Philosophy




Dr. Albert Carron


The purpose of the present dissertation was to develop a questionnaire to assess intra-group conflict in sport teams. To this end, the current dissertation consisted of three phases which followed a logical progression that is typical in the questionnaire development process. A total of (N = 752) participants took part in the three phases (Phase 1: N = 10; Phase 2: N = 437; Phase 3: N = 305).

Phase 1 was a qualitative investigation of athletes’ (N = 10) perceptions of the nature of conflict in sport. This phase was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the conflict phenomenon in sport groups. Results from Phase 1 indicated that participants experienced conflict in task and social situations, and that conflict manifested itself through cognitive (disagreements), behavioral (interference) and affective (negative emotions) components.

Phase 2 consisted of two projects. The objective of the first project was to utilise the results from Phase 1 to generate potential questionnaire items. These items were then assessed for content validity by a panel of experts (N = 6). A total of 50 items were generated and sent out to the experts. Based on their feedback, a total of 25 items were retained for further testing.

The objective of the second project of Phase 2 was to begin initial reliability (internal consistency) and validity (factorial) testing with the set of content valid items with a sample of athletes (N = 437). Results from this initial psychometric testing yielded a structurally reliable and valid (CFI = .946, RMSEA = .086, SRMR = .042) 14-item, two dimensional (task conflict, 7-items, and social conflict, 7-items) version of the Group Conflict Questionnaire.

Phase 3 was undertaken to further test the reliability (internal consistency) and validity (factorial, convergent, discriminant, known-group difference) for the Group Conflict Questionnaire with another sample of athletes (N = 305). Results provided evidence for reliability and validity for the four types assessed (CFI = .903, RMSEA = .109, SRMR = .060). The newly developed and validated 14-item, two dimensional, Group Conflict Questionnaire can be utilised for continued use to advance the knowledge of conflict in sport.