Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thesis Format



Master of Arts




King, Colin B.


Anxiety often emerges early in life and can significantly hinder the development and well-being of children. Although cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) stands as the primary treatment for anxiety, barriers to treatment as well as difficulties with sustained long-term treatment gains pose challenges. Moreover, the standardized structure, cognitive requirements, and lack of parental involvement may not best suit the needs of young children. Alternatively, parent-led interventions that are facilitated by clinicians circumvent many traditional barriers to addressing childhood anxiety. Further, modular therapy programs offer flexibility and individualized treatment to address specific client needs. The current study evaluated the perceived feasibility and the completion of a process evaluation of the first four weeks of a virtual, short-term parent-led modular anxiety intervention grounded in CBT. Data was collected from seven parents of children who were experiencing anxiety difficulty in London, Ontario. Thematic analysis revealed four key themes: barriers to traditional treatment, satisfaction with the current intervention, parental components, and child factors influencing treatment. The findings outlined that parents rated the intervention as acceptable. The process evaluation revealed key components, factors, and characteristics of the program’s implementation. These findings can inform future developments and delivery of the current intervention.

Summary for Lay Audience

Anxiety can be described as constant and recurring feelings of fear and worry that are considered excessive compared to the actual severity of the perceived threat. Anxiety that goes unaddressed in childhood can have negative, long-term impacts on one’s life. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a type of therapy that helps clients re-evaluate and alter their thoughts and behaviours to adopt healthier ones. While CBT is the most common treatment type for anxiety, the expectations and treatment intensity may be too advanced for younger children. Parent-led treatments that are guided by clinicians address common barriers to addressing traditional mental health care. Further, modular therapy programs – treatment programs that allow clinicians to select treatment modules depending on their client’s needs – allow for more specific and individualized treatment. The current study aimed to examine if delivering a parent-led modular CBT anxiety intervention would be feasible. This process was completed by conducting interviews with the participants to understand why they sought treatment, what drew them to this particular intervention, and their perceived satisfaction with the treatment design. The interviews were then analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s (2021) thematic analysis guide to identify recurring themes that occurred across the interviews. A process evaluation was also conducted whereby the program implementation factors (e.g., recruitment, characteristics of the participants, fidelity, dose delivered, dose received, and characteristics of the treatment program) were evaluated to understand how the program was implemented as well as to determine areas that may be altered to improve implementation for future deliveries of this treatment program. Overall, the participants considered the current intervention to be acceptable and feasible. The process evaluation revealed important positive factors as well as components that may be altered to ensure program success.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Available for download on Monday, June 01, 2026