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Thesis Format

Integrated Article


Master of Science


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering


Ray, Madhumita

2nd Supervisor

Gomaa, Hassan


Phosphorus (P) is one of the basic elements without which the life of living beings is not possible. The only source of phosphorus is phosphorus rock which is limited and is being depleted swiftly due to the rise in human population. This phosphorus is also being wasted due to soil leaching and agricultural runoff which is causing pollution in the ecosystem. Livestock effluent which is enriched in phosphorus and ammonia could be a potential source for recovering these. Membrane distillation is a promising technology proven for desalination and removal of inorganics from water. This separation process is appealing in comparison to the conventional separation process due to low operating temperatures causing lower energy consumption. In this study, a series combination of two modes of membrane distillation: direct contact and vacuum distillation were assembled to make system more attractive in terms of cost. Additionally, simultaneous recovering of phosphorus and ammonia can produce useful products from wastewater.

Summary for Lay Audience

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for supporting life on planet earth. Unfortunately, it is being depleted due to the increase in demand for food because of the growing population, globally. Instead of relying only on the mineral rocks for phosphorus fertilizer, an approach to recover it from wastewater streams, especially from livestock farms effluent and use it for making a slow releasing fertilizer, namely struvite, will be beneficial. Membrane distillation is a technology by which volatile components in the feed can be separated at lower temperature. In this research, different combinations of two modes of membrane distillation: direct contact and vacuum distillation were assembled and studied in objective to recover phosphorus and ammonia simultaneously.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 License.

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