The association between daily naps and metabolic syndrome: Evidence from a population-based study in the Middle-East
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Background: Daily naps are a common habit in many Middle Eastern and Asian countries; however, little is known about the association between daily naps and other health consequences, including the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: Participants were recruited from the Mashhad stroke and heart atherosclerotic disorders study. We defined MetS according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Nighttime sleeping hours were categorized into three categories: <6, 6–8, and >8 hours. Using logistic regression models, we analyzed the association between the duration of night-time sleep and daily naps with MetS and its different components. Results: A total of 9652 individuals were included in the study: 3859 with MetS (40%) and 5793 without MetS (60%), as the control group. Of all, 72% participants had a regular daily nap. Those with daily naps had a higher odd of MetS [Odds ratio:1.19, confidence interval: (1.08–1.33); P <.001]. We also observed significantly higher odds of obesity, central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose in these subjects. Men sleeping <6 hours per night had a lower odd of MetS. However, we observed higher odds of cardiovascular risk factors in participants sleeping <6 hours, including obesity and diabetes or IFG. Conclusion: Napping is a common habit in middle Eastern countries. Although the cross-sectional design of our study cannot prove causality, we observed a significant association between the presence of MetS and daily naps. The public should be aware of this possibility and be educated about the importance of sleeping patterns.