Epidemiology and Biostatistics Publications


Relationships between sleep and internalizing problems in early adolescence: Results from Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth

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Journal of Psychosomatic Research



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Background: Both inadequate sleep and internalizing problems, such as symptoms of anxiety and depression, are prevalent among adolescents with sparse epidemiological literature outlining sex-specific relationships at this critical age. Objective: To examine cross-sectional and prospective relationships between self-reported sleep problems, indicated by sleep duration, difficulties getting to sleep and changes in difficulties getting to sleep with internalizing problems in early adolescence. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. Relevant family and social context variables were controlled for in multivariable analyses. Family functioning was assessed as a potential effect modifier. Results: There were 993 and 736 participants [longitudinal cohort entry age of 10 or 11 years; 49% male] in longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses, respectively. Most cross-sectional multivariable analyses of sleep duration and internalizing problems revealed no statistical associations. Difficulties sleeping and concurrent internalizing problems were positively associated in 12/13 year old females (β = 1.77 [0.94, 2.61], R = 17%) and males (β = 1.18 [0.36, 2.01], R = 16%). High persistent difficulties sleeping in females aged 12/13 to 14/15 years also positively predicted internalizing problems in females age 14/15 years (β = 1.90 [0.52, 3.29], R = 21%) while controlling for initial internalizing symptoms. Family functioning was not found to be an effect modifier. Conclusion: Findings highlight the potential role of difficulties sleeping for adolescents' mental health. Public health initiatives to promote sleep hygiene in this population subgroup are critical to prevent the potential long-term health impact of sleep problems. 2 2 2

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