Augmented reality for neurosurgical guidance: An objective comparison of planning interface modalities
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
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Numerous augmented reality image guidance tools have been evaluated under specific clinical criteria, but there is a lack of investigation into the broad effect on targeting ability and perception. In this paper, we evaluated performance of 18 subjects on a targeting task modeling ventriculostomy trajectory planning. Users targeted ellipsoids within a mannequin head using both an augmented reality interface and a traditional slice-based interface for planning. Users were significantly more accurate by several measures using augmented reality guidance, but were seen to have significant targeting bias; depth was underestimated by users with low targeting success. Our results further demonstrate the need for superior depth cues in augmented reality implementations while providing a framework for objective evaluation of augmented reality interfaces.