International Journal of Earth Sciences
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The Neoarchean (ca. 2728 Ma) anorthosite-bearing Doré Lake Complex in the northeastern Abitibi subprovince, Quebec, was emplaced into an association of intra-oceanic tholeiitic basalts and gabbros known as the Obatogamau Formation. The Obatogamau Formation constitutes the lower part of the Roy Group, which is composed of two cycles of tholeiitic-to-calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, siliciclastic and chemical sedimentary rocks, and layered mafic-to-ultramafic sills. In this study, we report major and trace element results, and Nd, Sr, Pb and O isotope data for anorthosites, leucogabbros, gabbros and mafic dykes from the Doré Lake Complex and spatially associated basalts and gabbros of the Obatogamau Formation to assess their petrogenetic origin and geodynamic setting. Field and petrographic observations indicate that the Doré Lake Complex and associated volcanic rocks underwent extensive metamorphic alteration under greenschist facies conditions, resulting in widespread epidotization (20–40%) and chloritization (10–40%) of many rock types. Plagioclase recrystallized mainly to anorthite and albite endmembers, erasing intermediate compositions. Metamorphic alteration also led to the mobilization of many elements (e.g., LILE and transition metals) and to significant disturbance of the Rb–Sr and U–Pb isotope systems, resulting in 1935 ± 150 and 3326 ± 270 Ma errorchron ages, respectively. The Sm–Nd isotope system was less disturbed, yielding an errorchron age of 2624 ± 160 Ma. On many binary major and trace element diagrams, the least altered anorthosites and leucogabbros, and the gabbros and mafic dykes of the Doré Lake Complex plot in separate fields, signifying the presence of two distinct magma types in the complex. The gabbros and mafic dykes in the Doré Lake Complex share the geochemical characteristics of tholeiitic basalts and gabbros in the Obatogamau Formation, suggesting a possible genetic link between the two rock associations. Initial εNd (+2.6 to +5.0) and δ18O (+6.1 to +7.9‰) values for the Doré Lake Complex and gabbros of the Obatogamau Formation (εNd = +2.8 to +4.0; δ18O = +7.3 to 8.0‰) are consistent with depleted mantle sources. All rock types in the Doré Lake Complex and the Roy Group share the trace element characteristics of modern arc magmas, suggesting a suprasubduction zone setting for these two lithological associations. On the basis of regional geology and geochemical data, we suggest that the Doré Lake Complex and the Obatogamau Formation represent a dismembered fragment of a suture zone, like many Phanerozoic ophiolites, resulting from closure of a back-arc basin between 2703 and 2690 Ma.