Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Education




Dr. Alan Leschied

Second Advisor

Dr. Susan Rodger

Third Advisor

Dr. Steve Killip


Research into children’s mental health has developed a focus on childhood aggression, bullying, and victimization. Previous research of school-based aggression has identified sex differences in the experience of bullying and victimization in relation to the type of bullying in question. The present study examined sex and developmental differences in the experience of victimization through verbal, physical, social, sexual, and cyber bullying. Participants of this study were 43 741 students in grades 4 through 12 who completed the Safe Schools Survey through the Thames Valley District School Board in London, Ontario. Results indicated that male students are most likely to be victimized by school-based aggression, including social and sexual bullying, relative to female students. An interaction was found between sex and development in their relation on frequency of victimization. Students in grades 9 and 10 were most likely to be victimized, regardless of sex or type of bullying. The results are discussed in terms of the relevance to previous findings and implications for practitioners.



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