Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts




Dr. Karen Danylchuk

Second Advisor

Dr. Darwin Semotiuk

Third Advisor

Dr. James Weese


The purpose of this study was to examine spectators’ level of brand associations toward Toronto FC, a new professional soccer franchise. A secondary purpose was to determine the demographic and consumer profiles of Toronto FC spectators and whether differences in brand associations exist within these groups. Four hundred and sixty-eight spectators at a Toronto FC game completed a written survey adapted from Ross, James, and Vargas (2006) that involved rating 32 brand association items corresponding to nine subscales: commitment, concessions, brand mark, organizational attributes, on-field success, nonplayer personnel, stadium community, social interaction, and team play. Commitment was found to be the highest rated brand association followed by organizational attributes, brand mark, and social interaction. Age, season ticket status, games attended, and supporter group status were the only variables that had significant effects on the brand association factors. Implications for sport managers involved in establishing brand equity for their product are discussed.



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