Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Engineering Science


Biomedical Engineering


Dr. Terry Peters

Second Advisor

Dr. Aaron Fenster

Third Advisor

Dr. Maria Drangova


Image-guided therapy addresses the lack of direct vision associated with minimally- invasive interventions performed on the beating heart, but requires effective intraoperative imaging. Gated 4D ultrasound reconstruction using a tracked 2D probe generates a time-series of 3D images representing the beating heart over the cardiac cycle. These images have a relatively high spatial resolution and wide field of view, and ultrasound is easily integrated into the intraoperative environment. This thesis presents a real-time 4D ultrasound reconstruction system incorporated within an augmented reality environment for surgical guidance, whose incremental visualization reduces common acquisition errors. The resulting 4D ultrasound datasets are intended for visualization or registration to preoperative images. A human factors experiment demonstrates the advantages of real-time ultrasound reconstruction, and accuracy assessments performed both with a dynamic phantom and intraoperatively reveal RMS localization errors of 2.5-2.7 mm, and 0.8 mm, respectively. Finally, clinical applicability is demonstrated by both porcine and patient imaging.



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