Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts




Dr. Christopher Ellis


This thesis examines the lithic procurement and use behaviours of Small Point Archaic people occupying southern Ontario. The ultimate goal of this thesis was to test the “Direct-Embedded” procurement model originally proposed by Ellis and Spence (1997) in which they argued that Small Point Archaic people used mainly two toolstone sources and traversed most of southern Ontario in their seasonal rounds. An examination of data collected from 54 Small Point Archaic sites has shown that direct-embedded procurement of lithic resources was the norm at most sites, but Small Point Archaic people were not traveling all over southern Ontario utilizing both Kettle Point and Onondaga cherts during normal settlement movements. The most significant finding from the lithic data collected is that Onondaga chert is present at all sites and is being exchanged at a regional level in the form of points and preforms to areas far distant from the primary outcrops.



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