Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Health and Rehabilitation Sciences


Dr. Tom Jenkyn

Second Advisor

Dr. Trevor Birmingham

Third Advisor

Dr. Bob Giffin


The primary objective of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of lateral heel pressure and centre of pressure (CoP) during walking using an in-shoe plantar pressure measurement system. Secondary objectives were to explore the effects of 4° and 8° degree lateral heel wedges on lateral heel pressure, CoP and knee joint load (measured indirectly as the external knee adduction moment) and to compare these measures in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy controls. Twenty-six participants (12 individuals with and 14 without knee OA) completed two separate test occasions at least 24 hours apart and within 1 week. Each test included three-dimensional gait and in-shoe plantar pressure analyses, during three lateral heel wedge conditions: no wedge, 4° wedge 8° wedge. Reliability was estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2, ι) and standard errors of measurement (SEM). The ICCs for lateral heel pressure were consistently high (0.79-0.83) while ICCs for CoP in the X and Y direction were more variable (0.66-0.86). The SEMs were 10.3011.34mm for lateral heel pressure, 1.14-2.13mm for CoP in the x-direction and 4.627.02mm for CoP in the Y-direction. Lateral heel wedges significantly (p<0.001) altered lateral heel pressure, CoP and knee adduction moment. Differences between participants with and without OA did not reach statistical significance for any of these measures. These findings suggest that lateral heel pressure is an appropriate measure for use in future studies investigating foot orthotics such as lateral heel wedges. Keywords: test-retest reliability, osteoarthritis, lateral heel wedge, adduction moment, lateral heel pressure, centre of pressure



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