Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Physiology and Pharmacology


Dr. Michael J. Rieder

Second Advisor

Dr. Jack R. Bend

Third Advisor

Dr. David J. Freeman


Variations in formation and disposition of N-hydroxylamine metabolite (SMX-NHOH) of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and non-enzymatic oxidation to W-nitroso derivative (SMX-NO) are thought to be important in the pathogenesis of idiosyncratic drug reactions (IDRs), and produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). We investigated the potential attenuation of IDRs by complementary antioxidant therapy in sulphonamide-mediated IDRs using SMX-NHOH toxicity in Jurkat £6.1 cells. Baicalein, by chelating iron, and crocetin, by scavenging free radicals, are two antioxidant compounds of plant origin. We found that baicalein and crocetin (5 and 50 pM) potentiated the effect of 400 pM SMX-NHOH on markers of viability, ROS, and mitochondrial depolarization. Supplementation with baicalein and crocetin were of little benefit, and even deleterious in Jurkat £6.1 cells in some instances. However, the idea of complementary antioxidant therapy should not be completely discarded and data from these results suggest a duality between pro-oxidant and antioxidant effects of baicalein and crocetin.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.