Aidan Leach

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Engineering Science


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering


Gas-atomized liquid injections into fluidized beds are commonly used in industrial processes such as fluid coking, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and pharmaceutical granulation, where it is important to optimize the distribution of the injected liquid to prevent the formation of unwanted liquid-solid agglomerates and maximize product yields. In this study, a novel technique using electrical conductance measurements is used to characterize the interaction between gas-liquid jets and a gas-solid fluidized bed. This method is then used to compare different injection nozzles under a wide variety of experimental conditions.

Two versions of the conductance technique were developed. The passive conductance technique measured the signal generated by the particles in the bed, while the active conductance technique used an applied voltage to measure the electrical conductance of the bed directly. The active technique was then used, in addition to droplet size analysis, to compare several commercially available nozzles.

The technique was then applied to test the effect of artificially-induced pulsations in the injection flowrate. The data from the conductance measurements was compared to agglomerate data retrieved from bed samples



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