Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Education




Dr. Robert Macmillan

Second Advisor

Dr. Jerald Paquette


In 1997, the Progressive Conservative government of Mike Harris enacted the controversial Bill 160, The Education Quality Improvement Act which ultimately amended the Education Act and among other changes to public education, removed school level administrators from teachers’ Federations as was already the case in several other Canadian provinces. In the decade that followed, teachers and administrators have had to find ways to work together in an effective manner, despite challenging shifts in the political climate in their schools. In this research, I conducted semi-structured interviews with retired school administrators who had worked as administrators prior to and post Bill 160. I asked them how they perceived their relationship with teachers had shifted their leadership practice. In general, the removal of the administrators from the teachers’ Federation did not cause the calamity that many predicted would befall public education. However the administrators in this study found new ways to work with teachers within the rules that were established by Bill 160.



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