Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Geographers have only begun to examine the phenomenon of tourism in the Third World, despite the increasing importance of the activity. Existing models of tourism space were found to be inadequate to represent the evolution of these emerging tourist destinations. Using the Caribbean island of Antigua as a case study, the spatial development of tourism in underdeveloped small scale peripheral environments was investigated and modelled. Four stages of tourism development (pre-tourism, transition, early tourism dominant and late tourism dominant) were initially identified using absolute tourist arrivals and an economic transition model for the island. These were then profiled during a historical description of Antigua's tourist industry, and subsequently modelled using an ordinally based classification scheme which recognized primary, secondary, tertiary and non-tourism elements of landscape. The pre-tourism model is characterized by the dominance of non-tourism space, as tourists were accommodated within the existing plantation system. Specialized or primary facilities begin to appear during the transition stage, along with localized indirect effects upon agriculture and employment. Non-tourism space disappears altogether in integrated areas during the tourism dominant stage, and the mature tourism landscape which is eventually expected to emerge is characterized by the concentric ring model, with the relationship with tourism decreasing toward the interior. Heliotropically oriented tourism types which existed in the mature landscape included yachting, cruise ships, resort hotels, residential tourism and self-catering tourism. The physical, cultural and intangible factors which distort the model in "real life" situations were also discussed, followed by an examination of the variables which influence the resort cycle. Finally, the tourism landscape was discussed in relation to the ongoing debate about the development process. The structuralist interpretation emphasized the existence of a dualistic, unequal space, while the traditionalists stressed the presence of tourist facilities as an indication of, and vehicle for economic development.



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