Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


This investigation examined the effects on smoking of one social environmental support for smoking, one physical environmental support for smoking, and gender of the subject. The social environmental support for smoking was represented by the behaviour of a model who either smoked three cigarettes in the presence of the subject or refrained from smoking. The physical environmental support for smoking was the presence or absence of ashtrays.;The Model and Ashtray factors were combined to create four experimental conditions: (a) Nonsmoker Model + No Ashtray, (b) Nonsmoker Model + Ashtray, (c) Smoker Model + No Ashtray and, (d) Smoker Model + Ashtray.;Subjects for the investigation were 72 adult smokers (40 women, 32 men) employed full-time in the business community. Each subject was exposed to one of the four experimental conditions over a 45 minute observation period. During this time, subjects completed a series of paper and pencil questionnaires concerning their lifestyle and personality. Dependent measures of smoking behaviour includeded (a) number of cigarettes, (b) puffs per cigarette, (c) time until lighting the first cigarette, (d) duration spent smoking each cigarette and, (e) interval between cigarettes.;Results indicated that the Model and Gender factors significantly influenced the number of cigarettes consumed during the observation period. Subjects smoked more cigarettes when exposed to a model who smoked than when exposed to a model who refrained from smoking (p < .001). Furthermore, women smoked at a higher rate than men (p < .05). Finally, the presence or absence of ashtrays failed to significantly influence smoking behaviour. In addition, there were no significant interactions between independent variables.;This study demonstrated that a social environmental support for smoking, such as the behaviour of another person, can influence the rate of smoking by an observer. However, evidence failed to support the prediction that a physical environmental support influences smoking rate. Preliminary evidence suggested that men and women may differ on the elicitation of smoking in particular situations. Results are discussed in relation to social learning theory and an ecological view of cigarette smoking. In addition, applications of results to the ecological management of smoking and smoking cessation are addressed.



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