Novel calcium zirconate silicate cement biomineralize and seal root canals
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This study evaluated the sealing ability of gutta-percha (GP) with a calcium silicate-based sealer and a novel calcium zirconate containing calcium silicate cement (ZC). The root canals of the extracted premolars were prepared, which were then randomly allocated to three experimental groups (12 root canals per group) for obturation by continuous wave of condensation with the GP and AH 26 sealer (CW); obturation using a single GP with a calcium silicate-based EndoSequence BC sealer (SC); or obturation with ZC. The roots were inserted into sterile Eppendorf tubes, which were inoculated coronally with Porphyromonas gingivalis. The amount of endotoxin leakage into the apical reservoirs were measured using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay over 21 days, with comparisons made using one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's tests (α = 0.05). After 21 days, 75% of the canals that had been obturated by SC, 50% of those obturated by CW and 42% of those obturated by ZC showed endotoxin leakage. The amount of leakage was higher in the SC canals than in the CW (p = 0.031) or ZC (p = 0.03) canals, although there was no significant difference in the amount of leakage for CW and ZC (p > 0.05). X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5) and calcium zirconate (CaZrO3) in the synthesized ZC. Scanning electron microscopy revealed mineralized precipitates on the dentin of canals obturated by ZC. The novel calcium zirconate silicate cement appears to promote biomineralization and seal root canals at least as effectively as the conventional sealer.