Bending resistance and cyclic fatigue resistance of WaveOne Gold, Reciproc Blue, and HyFlex EDM instruments
Journal of Dental Sciences
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Background/purpose: Several single-file systems manufactured using different heat treatment and operated by different kinematics have been released. This study compared the bending resistance and cyclic fatigue resistance of three NiTi files, and examined their phase-transformation behavior. Materials and methods: WaveOne Gold Primary (WOG), Reciproc Blue R25 (RPB), and HyFlex EDM OneFile (HDM) were tested (N = 40/instrument). A vertical load was applied to a point 3 mm from the tip, and the stress was measured until a displacement of 3 mm. Tests were conducted at either room temperature (RT: 22 °C) or body temperature (BT: 37 °C) (n = 10). Cyclic fatigue resistance tests were performed in an artificial canal, which had a curvature angle of 40° and a 5-mm radius. Tests were conducted at either RT or BT (n = 10). Instruments were operated according to the manufacturers' instructions. Test results were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis and the Mann–Whitney tests. Additional three instruments of each brand were subjected to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: At RT the bending resistance of three files were not significantly different. However, at BT the bending resistance of RPB was highest, followed by WOG, and HDM (P < 0.05). At RT, RPB demonstrated the longest fracture time, followed by HDM, and WOG (P < 0.05). At BT, HDM had the longest fracture time, followed by RPB, and WOG (P < 0.05). The WOG, RPB consisted of austenite in a considerable proportion, whereas HDM was mainly martensite state at BT. Conclusion: HDM presented superior flexibility and cyclic fatigue resistance at BT.