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New approaches to treat bacterial infections are badly needed to address the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. This study explores phosphonium-functionalized block copolymer micelles as intrinsically antibacterial polymer assemblies. Phosphonium cations with varying alkyl lengths were conjugated to the terminus of a poly(ethylene oxide)− polycaprolactone block copolymer, and the phosphonium-functionalized block copolymers were self-assembled to form micelles in aqueous solution. The size, morphology, and ζ -potential of the assemblies were studied, and their abilities to kill Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. It was found that the minimum bactericidal concentration depended on the phosphonium alkyl chain length, and different trends were observed for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The most active assemblies exhibited no hemolysis of red blood cells above the bactericidal concentrations, indicating that they can selectively disrupt the membranes of bacteria. Furthermore, it was possible to encapsulate and release the antibiotic tetracycline using the assemblies, providing a potential multimechanistic approach to bacterial killing.