Parametric modeling of steady-state gradient coil vibration: Resonance dynamics under variations in cylinder geometry
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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Gradient coil (GC) vibration is the root cause of many problems in MRI adversely affecting scanner performance, image quality, and acoustic noise levels. A critical issue is that GC vibration will be significantly increased close to any GC mechanical resonances. It is well known that altering the dimensions of a GC fundamentally affects the mechanical resonances excited by the GC windings. The precise nature of the effects (i.e., how the resonances are affected) is however not well understood. The purpose of the present paper is to study how the mechanical resonances excited by closed whole-body Z-gradient coils are affected by variations in cylinder geometry. A mathematical Z-gradient coil vibration model recently developed and validated by the authors is used to theoretically study the resonance dynamics under variation(s) in cylinder: (i) length, (ii) mean radius, and (iii) radial thickness. The forced-vibration response to Lorentz-force excitation is in each case analyzed in terms of the frequency response of the GC cylinder's displacement. In cases (i) and (ii), the qualitative dynamics are simple: reducing the cylinder length and/or mean radius causes all mechanical resonances to shift to higher frequencies. In case (iii), the qualitative dynamics are much more complicated with different resonances shifting in different directions and additional dependencies on the cylinder length. The more detailed dynamics are intricate owing to the fact that resonances shift at comparatively different rates and this leads to several novel and theoretically interesting predicted effects. Knowledge of these effects advance our understanding of the basic mechanics of GC vibration and offer practically useful insights into how such vibration may be passively reduced.