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Optimal perception requires adaptation to sounds in the environment. Adaptation involves representing the acoustic stimulation history in neural response patterns, for example, by altering response magnitude or latency as sound-level context changes. Neurons in the auditory brainstem of rodents are sensitive to acoustic stimulation history and sound-level context (often referred to as sensitivity to stimulus statistics), but the degree to which the human brainstem exhibits such neural adaptation is unclear. In six electroencephalography experiments with over 125 participants, we demonstrate that the response latency of the human brainstem is sensitive to the history of acoustic stimulation over a few tens of milliseconds. We further show that human brainstem responses adapt to sound-level context in, at least, the last 44 ms, but that neural sensitivity to sound-level context decreases when the time window over which acoustic stimuli need to be integrated becomes wider. Our study thus provides evidence of adaptation to sound-level context in the human brainstem and of the timescale over which sound-level information affects neural responses to sound. The research delivers an important link to studies on neural adaptation in non-human animals.